Stone processing mainly includes sawing, cutting, grinding, polishing, etc. The workability of stone refers to the ease with which it can be sawed, cut, ground, and polished. Sawing and cutting are the same, while grinding and polishing are different but very similar. Therefore, the processing properties of general stone usually refer to sawability and grindability.
The main factors affecting the processing performance of stone are:
(1) Hardness Generally speaking, the harder the stone, the more difficult it is to process and the greater the wear on the tools.
(2) Mineral composition and chemical composition The material composition of stone includes mineral composition and chemical composition. Different mineral compositions and chemical compositions have different processability.
For example, the rock-forming minerals of marble are mainly calcite and dolomite, whose Mohs hardness is 3 and 3.5-4 respectively. They are lower in hardness than granite and are easy to process.
The main rock-forming minerals of granite are quartz, orthoclase, and plagioclase. Their hardness is 6.5-7 on the Mohs scale. Its processability depends largely on the quartz and feldspar content. The higher the content, the more difficult it is to process.
From the perspective of chemical composition, the higher the SiO2 content, the more difficult it is to process.
(3) The structure of rocks. Generally speaking, stone with uniform particles is easier to process than uneven stone, fine-grained stone has higher polishing quality than flaky stone, and dense stone has a higher gloss than loose stone. Minerals have good crystallinity and their orientation is consistent with the direction of the optical axis, which will greatly improve the gloss after polishing. The cleavage, grain boundaries and initial cracks of rock are also important factors affecting processing performance.
In addition, the selected processing tools and process parameters are also influencing factors that need to be considered. There are two main types of facing stones used in architectural decoration: marble and granite. The main processes for processing veneer stone raw materials into building decorative panels include sawing, grinding and polishing, cutting finished boards, trimming, chamfering, grooving, etc. Among them, the sawing process is the key, which determines the output and quality of the product. In sawing processing, diamond saw blades are mainly used.